World Cup winner and former England captain Lewis Moody has retired from rugby with immediate effect.
The 33-year-old Bath flanker, who suffered a shoulder injury earlier this season, confirmed on his official website that he has called it a day.
Moody, who won 71 caps and played in two Tests on the 2005 British and Irish Lions tour of New Zealand, stepped down from the international arena following England's World Cup campaign last autumn.
In a statement released through his agents Big Red Management, Moody said: "It is with great sadness that I have to announce my immediate retirement from all forms of rugby.
"I have been very privileged to have played in some incredible teams and with some phenomenal players.
"I owe a huge debt of gratitude to all the medics and physios who have put me back together time and time again to enable me to continue to play this wonderful sport of ours.
"I would like to thank all of the coaches that I have worked with during my career, from Bracknell minis to the British and Irish Lions; they have all left their mark on me as a player.
"It goes without saying how much I value the fans who have supported me so loyally over the years, it has been one of life's singular pleasures to have played this game in front of you.
"Finally, I would not have achieved what I have in this sport without the continued support of my family and friends during my entire career.
"Rugby has been my life for such a long time now, it is scary to imagine what it will be like without it, but I look forward to relishing the new opportunities and adventures that will come my way."